A new Bill, which Scottish ministers say aims to "protect the environment and tackle the persecution of birds of prey", has prompted concern among rural campaigners.
The new Wildlife Management and Muirburn Bill seeks to introduce licensing for land used for red grouse shooting, as well as for muirburn.
It also seeks to roll out licensing and training requirements for certain other types of wildlife traps and a ban the use and purchase of glue traps.
But the Scottish Countryside Alliance said it was 'extremely concerned' that the bill could 'undermine effective wildlife management'.
The legislation follows the introduction of new measures in recent years, including the Animals and Wildlife Penalties, Protections and Powers Act.
These introduced high penalties for wildlife crimes, as well as the 2023 Hunting with Dogs Act.
According to a press release distributed by the Scottish government, the new Bill has been designed to implement the recommendations set out in the Werritty Review.
But the Scottish Countryside Alliance said the bill risked much of the investment associated with grouse shooting.
The activity is seen as vital for the management of moorland habitats and the livelihoods of rural workers.
Jake Swindells, director of the group said: “Unless the government works closely with those who actually manage the land, they risk getting this very wrong.
"Much of the devil will be in the detail of the regulations and licensing regimes which will follow."
He added: "[We] will work to ensure policy is based on sound evidence, which has not always been the case with policy impacting the countryside in recent years”.